Garden Company Name Influences Customers

The garden company name influences customers in choosing products.

The public relations journal called Public Relations Tactics arrives on my desk every month.

This journal provides articles on what’s new and current in public relations practice.

A recent article called “Understanding Brands and Influencer Relations” caught my attention.

Since the Public Relations Society of America publishes this journal, I generally feel confident about the quality of its articles.

The word ‘influencer’ in the title made me curious. 

Influencers happen to be individuals who can persuade others, like their readers if the person were a journalist or blogger, to notice and perhaps choose a certain brand of a product.

The author Heather Sliwinski says, “Think of bloggers, and other social influencers, as brand ambassadors.”

My thoughts, of course, went back to the nineteenth century garden industry. Were there influencers back then?

Seed company owners like W. Atlee Burpee, Peter Henderson, John Childs, and James Vick became brand ambassadors for the nineteenth century garden industry.

Their audience was the middle class woman who loved gardening.

If Vick or Henderson said or wrote something, it was common for consumers to take notice.

Henderson placed this ad in Harper’s magazine. [below]

Peter Henderson Seed Company ad in Harper's

Peter Henderson Seed Company ad in Harper’s magazine

You see illustrated the ideal customer: a middle class woman who liked gardening, and was in the search of the newest. Here Henderson wrote in the ad, “Sensational Flower Seed Novelty.”  A new variety of hollyhocks was available for this gardener.

A nineteenth century seedsman, like Vick, sometimes approached a newspaper editor, also an influencer, with press material to promote Vick’s seed company.  If a story ran, Vick would send the editor packets of seeds in gratitude.

Like today, the influencer has a following. That’s how he or she received that name.

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Nineteenth Century Targeted Garden Advertising

Nineteenth century targeted garden advertising.

Public relations and advertising professionals often need an index of available promotional sources. Such an index would include information like the circulation numbers of a media outlet.

They need to know, for example, how many people receive a particular magazine.

Since the late 19th century, advertising companies have put out directories of media available for a business considering placing an ad.

Such directories gave advertising more precision in reaching its audience.

Rochester, New York seedsman James Vick (1818-1882) researched such directories for his own garden advertising.

Thus he showed an awareness of the latest in advertising as a science, as they called it then.

Vick wrote in his garden magazine of 1881 Vick’s Illustrated Monthly, “There are over ten thousand different publications in America, and with all those we have more or less correspondence during the year. In this  work we are much aided by the excellent publications of the leading advertising agents, such as Geo. P. Rowell & Co., of New York, and N. W. Ayer & Son, of Philadelphia [the first US advertising firm].”

Vick continues, ” These books not only give the names, location, and character of the newspapers, magazines, etc., but, in most cases, the circulation.”

This magazine ad [below] appeared in American Agriculturist, a popular journal whose audience was middle to upper class homeowners who would buy a mower for that perfect lawn.

An ad in the magazine American Agriculruist May 1888

An ad in the magazine American Agriculturist May 1888

So nineteenth century seed companies and nurseries needed to know what publications their consumers read.

Then through a particular publication they could target its audience.

Ever since moden advertising, born in the nineteenth century, has used what we now call media directories like Cision to appeal to their consumers.

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Garden Advertising Sometimes Exaggerates

Garden Advertising Sometimes Exaggerates

Advertising in America as an industry began with the N. W. Ayer & Son Company in Philadelphia in 1867.

From that point on advertisers through the media of the day sought to persuade a consumer to buy a particular brand of a product.

Lydia Pinkham was among the first to use such advertising to market her patent medicine, a remedy for female complaints. She combined vegetable compound laced with nineteen per cent alcohol to make up her medicinal beverage.

The garden industry of course through the seed companies and nurseries did not shy away from ads to promote their wares as well.

You would think that today, one hundred fifty years later, we are smart enough to reject false claims in advertising.

Not true.

Sometimes, even today, garden advertising exaggerates what the company promises.

A ‘garden in a box’ seems to imply you simply plant something like the company’s seed strips and wallah, you have a garden.

Mike Lizotte from American Meadows said, “We’ve all seen the ‘meadow in a can’ seed products at our

Wildflower mix from Aerican Meadows

Wildflower mix from American Meadows

favorite big box store. Don’t be fooled by the nice packaging.”

There is always something left out in advertising in order that the ad can make its point.

In the ‘garden in a box’ that something happens to be the work it takes to maintain a garden, and see it through to its flowering.

Also, the product may be inferior. There may be fewer seeds than promised.

Garden advertising is really like any advertising. The buyer has to be aware of the kind of promises made by the seller.

Adrian Higgins, garden writer for the Washington Post, recently wrote an article entitled “Growing wild – by design.”

He said, “A few years ago, there was the notion that meadows were so eager to sprout that

American Meadows

American Meadows

you could buy a can full of wildflower seed, sprinkle the contents on a piece of cleared land and you would have a floriferous meadow in perpetuity. But there is no meadow genie in the can.”

Though we need to proceed cautiously with ads, advertising for the garden at the same time it tries to sell something also informs the consumer about new products.

Nineteenth century New York seedsman James Vick (1818-1882) recognized that part of advertising.

Vick wrote in 1880 in his magazine Vick’s Illustrated Monthly “Those desiring reliable information upon horticultural subjects will find much that is valuable in these [advertising] pages.”

Victorian Seedsman Encouraged Advertising

Victorian seedsman encouraged advertising.

New York seedsman Peter Henderson (1822-1890) wrote several popular garden books in the late nineteenth century.

He also believed in the power of advertising for his company.

In 1884 Philadelphia nurseryman Thomas Meehan included in his magazine Gardener’s Monthly a speech that Henderson had given that year at the Chicago Convention of Nurserymen.  He quotes Henderson as saying, “Advertising is rapidly becoming a fine art, and the more it advances as a fine art, the more advertising will be done and the more profit will result from it.”

As a business, the seed industry had its share of competition.  The amount of advertising sometimes distinguished one company from another.

Henderson catalog 1885

For example, this chromolithograph cover [above] from Henderson’s seed catalog of 1885 promoted the company as modern and progressive, but still classic. The company promised to fill every need a gardener may have.

Meehan wrote the following in another issue of his magazine from that same year, “Perhaps in no other country is the press so liberally patronized by seedsmen, florists, and nurserymen as in the United States. In their advertising seasons, which cover most of the months of the year, we can rarely pick up a periodical that does not contain some of their advertisements.”

Henderson was not alone among his Brothers of the Spade, fellow garden merchants.  He believed in advertising for any modern business to succeed, including the garden industry.

Loudon Befriended Early American Seedsman

Loudon befriended early American seedsman.

Writer and horticulturist John Claudius Loudon (1783-1843) influenced the development of the English garden during the first half of the nineteenth century. He is sometimes referred to as the ‘father of the English garden.’

Loudon shared a friendship with New York seedsman Grant Thorborn (1773-1863), both originally from Scotland, and living in England when they met.Loudon and the Landscape

In her book Loudon and the Landscape: From Country Seat to Metropolis Melanie Louise Simo wrote that Loudon and Thorburn enjoyed after dinner conversation together at Loudon’s home.

Thorburn sailed for America in 1794. He settled in New York where he established a seed company in 1802, one of the earliest in the country.

In its 1899 catalog the Thorburn Company [below] laid claim to its longevity as a reason for a customer to send in seed orders. The catalog said, “Our leading business principle has always been to supply only the very highest class of seeds. The fact that we have commanded the leading wholesale and market-gardeners’ trade of this country for nearly a century should justify our claim to the patronage of those who have not yet experienced the advantage of dealing with us.”

1899 Thorburn seed catalog

1899 Thorburn seed catalog

In his writing about the garden in the catalogue, Thorburn liberally quoted from English garden authorities, including the English garden ideas of his friend Loudon.

The Oregon State University website for its wondeful seed catalog collection says, “Thorburn quoted liberally from English gardening authorities including Loudon, but added his own notes on how plants performed in America.”

Through the words of his friend Loudon Thorborn proposed the English garden design to his American customers.

Nineteenth Century Ads Included Factory Images

Nineteenth Century Ads Included Factory Images

Recently I traveled to the Boston Athenaeum to see a new Exhibit they had promoted.

The exhibit, called Collecting for the Boston Athenaeum in the 21st Century, included prints and photographs.

Without doubt this was one of my favorite exhibits because it included chromolithographs of factories from the nineteenth century. Then it was a common practice, especially after 1850, for companies to promote their business with an illustration of their factory or headquarters.  These illustrations would appear in trolleys, stores, and on buildings.

My favorite was the 1891 chromo of the Boston Belting Co. [below]

Boston Rubber Company 1890 [Boston Aethaneum]

Boston Rubber Company 1890 [Boston Athenaeum]

The nineteenth century seed companies and nurseries scattered across the country followed suit.

They wanted customers to know they were dealing with a substantial company and so a chromo of their warehouse and seed company, even their box company, was not uncommon.

Here is a chomolithograph of the D. M. Ferry Seed Co in Detroit from 1897. [below] Notice the size of the buildings.

Ferry Buildings 1887 small

D. M. Ferry and Son Company, 1897 [Courtesy Cornell University]

At the same time the chromo of the company’s factory and  warehouse formed a bit of advertising.

The customer thought, of course, that such a big company must have a worthwhile product to sell.

Why would he or she not order seeds from such an establishment as Ferry?  After all, the company could afford this factory and warehouse.

A new exhibition called Art on Tap at the Museum of Wisconsin Art in West Bend, Wisconsin includes this poster made from an early chromolithograph by the Miller Brewing Company. [Below]

Even the nineteenth century beer giants advertised with images of their factories.

Miller Brewing Co. Factory Scene, self-framed lithograph on tin, The H.D. Beach Co., 1905, From the collection of Robert and Debra Markiewicz

Miller Brewing Co. Factory Scene, self-framed lithograph on tin, the H.D. Beach Co., 1905. From the collection of Robert and Debra Markiewicz.

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Victorian Gardens Featured Carpet Bedding

Victorian gardens featured carpet bedding.

Untill 1890 the English garden included a garden fashion called ‘carpet bedding.’

In this style a particular plant provided a color for a design, which might be a diamond or a circle, while a contrasting color came from another plant.

In this Peter Henderson Seed Company catalog cover from 1886 red and white plants provided color for the diamond and the half-moon on the lawn. [below]

Bedding on the front cover of this Peter Henderson Company seed catalog

Bedding out on the front cover of this Peter Henderson Company seed catalog of 1886.

This form of gardening was also referred to as ‘bedding out,’ repeating the same plant in a design to achieve a certain mass color.

Tom Carter wrote about this garden fashion in his book The Victorian Garden. He said, “Without the bedding system, the new style of flower-gardening would not have been possible. Bedding-out, in turn, was a response to the introduction of many plants, many half-hardy annuals in the 1820s and 1830s.”

In the mid-nineteenth century English gardeners welcomed annuals from where ever plant hunters traveled including Asia, Africa, and South America.

Carter wrote, “The bedding-out system was an indispensable part of the high Victorian style of gardening which became first established in the 1850s.”

For example, it was the color of the coleus leaf, or the lobelia flower, or that special tint from the alternanthera that gardeners loved, including that plant in a design on the lawn.

David Stuart wrote an amazing book called The Garden Triumphant: A Victorian Legacy.  He said, “”In the early Victorian bedding or grouping system, plant individualities were of no importance, each individual merely yielding the colour of its flowers to the general show…The obsession with ‘show’ with plants merely as a ‘blaze of colours’ was all.”

Below is a modern version of carpet bedding or bedding out that comes from Italy. [below]

Photo: denvilles duo

Gardens in display [Thanks to Denvilles Duo]

So when you garden using a grouping of one plant, remember that the Victorians promoted that form of gardening.

Before that time it was considered a violation of garden etiquette to place one plant next to another of the same color and variety.

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Gardener Poet Celia Thaxter Loved Calendulas

Gardener poet Celia Thaxter loved calendulas.

This summer I planted several calendulas in my garden.

Recently while reading The Sandpiper, a biography of poet Celia Thaxter (1835-1894), written by her granddaughter Rosamond Thaxter, I discovered the calendula was Celia’s favorite flower.Sandpiper cover

I can understand why. It is a fabulous annual here in the northeast.

From the herbal site called Sunkist Herbal, we read its role in Victorian society. SH says, “The calendula (Calendula officinalis) is a hardy annual with single or double daisy-like blooms of yellow or orange. The 3- to 4-inch flowers open with the sun and close at night, leading the Victorians to believe they could set a clock by the flower. The name ‘calendula’ is from the same Latin word as ‘calendar,’ presumably because the flower was in bloom almost every month of the year.”

Rochester, New York seedsman James Vick (1816-1882) wrote in the October 1880 issue of his magazine Vick’s Illustrated Monthly, “Every one knows the old yellow Marigold, for it is common as the Sunflower, and has been as long as we can remember. It is called in the books Calendula, but that makes no difference, for it is the same old Marigold that many of us have grown for half a century. That name was given because it was thought some species were in flower every month of the calendar.”

He concluded, “The Calendula will probably never take rank with the best annuals, but we are glad to see it make a bold start for the front after so long a stay in the rear. If its improvement should continue, there is no telling the future of this good old flower.”

Calendula, Mother Earth Living

Calendula, Mother Earth Living

Vick seemed to imply that the calendula was making somewhat of a comeback.

Maybe so.

At the same time off the shores of Maine in her garden at Appledore Island, Celia Thaxter too was planting it in her garden.

Celia’s family owned a hotel on the island and for many summers Celia worked there and also tended her own flower garden.

In her garden Celia grew annuals to decorate the hotel as well as her own house where she often entertained artists, writers, and musicians.

The hotel went down in a fire in 1914, but volunteers have preserved Celia’s garden which measured 50 feet by 15 feet.

Today in her restored garden you still see the flowers laid out in the same order that Celia chose. She left the details of her garden in her book An Island Garden, probably her most famous book and still worth reading today.

Celia Thaxter's island garden measures 50 feet by 15 feet.

Celia Thaxter’s island garden measures 50 feet by 15 feet.

Celia collected her seeds from friends who came to the hotel, but also from seed companies. Perhaps one of her seed sources was the Vick Seed Company because she mentioned Vick’s death in a letter to a friend. Within weeks after his death in 1882 she wrote, “Old Vick died.”

Today the total number of flowers planted in Celia’s garden is 1600, including of course her  favorite calendula.

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Victorian Flowers Decorate Forever Stamps

Victorian flowers decorate forever stamps.

Recently I bought first class stamps at our local post office, something I have done many times.

This batch of stamps however surprised me. Victorian flowers decorated each stamp in the packet I received.

Each stamp looked like a work of art. That’s what they were: botanical art from the late nineteenth century.

The U.S. Post Office used chromolithographs of flowers from the seed and nursery catalogs from the 1880s into the twentieth century for these new stamps, just issued in January.

stamps 2016

Depicted on the stamps, top row from left:corn lilies, tulips, stocks, roses and petunias. Pictured bottom row from left: tulips, dahlias, japanese Iris, tulips and daffodils and jonquils. [Courtesy of the US Postal Service]

The late nineteenth century was a time when many businesses used chromolithographs to promote their products in ads, catalog covers, trade cards, and posters. The garden industry was no different, including in the catalog brightly colored chromos, as they were called, depicting their flowers. Often the artist responsible for these images was never named.

The images on these stamps come from the seed and nursery catalog collection at the New York Botanical Garden, one of the largest such archives in the country.

Botanical art on stams 2016

An example of the botanical art on new first class stamps, issued in January 2016.

No surprise that I have been using the stamps for the past few weeks.

These stamps provide a lesson in garden history by focusing on the botanical art used to sell flowers in Victorian America.

We now have them thanks to the U.S. Post Office.

U.S. Post Office

U.S. Post Office

 

 

 

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New Short Video Shows Pollinators

New short video shows pollinators.

Pollinators remain an important contributor in any garden. According to the New England Wild Flower Society, eighty percent of flowering plants depend on pollination. Yet organic farmer Jane Sorenson from River Barry Farm in Fairfax, Vermont says, “There are fewer bugs today than only a few years ago.”

That is all the more reason today to plant a pollinator-friendly garden. Pollinators include more than butterflies and birds, according to entomologist and author Eric Grissell.

Pollinators also include ants, wasps, and, of course, bees. Grissell writes in his book Bees, Wasps, and Ants, “It seems as if the usual state of human affairs is at work: an attraction for the bright, shiny aspects of nature in preference to the bugs that do the basic work of keeping our gardens functioning as nature meant them to.”

In April 1879 Rochester, New York seedsman James Vick wrote in his garden magazine Vick’s Illustrated Monthly , “Most of our garden flowers are honey-producing, as well as many of our wild plants and weeds. The main question is, what can we plant to produce the most food for bees, at the least expense.” He made a point then, which remains relevant today as well.

Plant for bloom of some sort during the whole gardening season. Use plants that provide nectar and pollen sources like annuals, perennials, shrubs, both native and exotic.

Situate the garden in a sunny area with windbreaks.

Provide where possible a water source like a birdbath. Pollinators do not live by nectar alone. They need water and shelter as well as food, and food requirements differ depending on the life stage of the pollinator.

Finally, pesticides can create problems in a pollinator-garden. Eliminate or minimize the impact of any pesticide in the garden.

Providing for pollinators doesn’t have to be complicated. Most of the plants you could use are available at a local nursery and easy to maintain.

After you plant your pollinator-friendly garden, register it online with the Million Pollinator Garden Challenge, a nationwide call to action.

Diane Blazek, Executive Director of the National Garden Bureau and one of the founders of the Challenge, says, “Once you plant it. Share it. A garden can be an acre, or a container, as long it includes a pollinator-friendly plant.”

Here is the new short video called “The Beauty of Pollination.” Enjoy.