Landscape Painting Inspired Eighteenth Century English Garden

Landscape painting inspired eighteenth century English garden.

The English garden took a new direction in the early 1700s.

The landscape became an expression of art, fashioned with materials like land form, plants, stone, and water. The aristocratic landowners, who fostered this new garden style, claimed it offered a more natural look, rather than one based on formality and symmetry.

Landscape painting became the inspiration for this new landscape garden.

The landscape painting most influential included mountains, trees, various images of sunlight, clouds, water, pathways, and sometimes classic structures like temples.

In the process the English garden, expressed in eighteenth century landscapes like Stowe, Rousham, and Stourhead, became a work of art.

In his book The Arcadian Friends: Inventing the English Landscape Garden Tim Richardson says           “[During the late 1730s and 1740s] the political charge of landscape design did not exactly diminish, but it was challenged by a fashionable new aesthetic sensibility with regard to outdoor scene-making that was largely derived from painting.

“The landscape garden was now beginning to be viewed as much as an artform as it was a vehicle for political self-expression.”

It was landscape painting that motivated this new English garden.

Edward Hyams writes in  The English Garden that Henry Hoare in his garden at Stourhead had carried out in nature’s own materials the landscape on canvas of Claude, Salvator Rosa and Zuccarelli.

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English Landscape Garden Reflected Baroque Tradition

English landscape garden reflected baroque tradition.

In landscape history it is important to note the influence on a particular period’s garden design or style.

Nothing happens in a vacuum.

It is the Dutch that gave us the word ‘landscape’ but they also influenced the English landscape garden of the early 1700s.

Tim Richardson writes in his book The Arcadian Friends: Inventing the English Landscape Garden: “It could be argued that the landscape movement was not primarily a reaction at all, but grew organically out of the tradition of the baroque formal garden, particularly the ‘Dutch’ elements of it, and in so doing retained many of its features.”

The landscape garden borrowed features from the baroque garden, like the formal and symmetrical French design that one could see at Versailles with its grand formality, straight lines, elaborate parterres,  and symmetry.  The landscape of Louise XIV’s summer palace designed by Andre LeNotre illustrated a sense of  human domination over nature.  Nature is to be subservient to man, according to the philosophy of the baroque period. Religious sentiment too supported that view by interpreting the garden of Eden story with God’s command for human dominion over all of nature. 

Hampton Court in the late 1600s illustrated that baroque look as well. [below]

Notice the straight lines in the design but also the use of water.  All the plantings filling in each partere surrounding the fountain illustrate the formal look of the design.

Hampton Court Palace’s grand garden was laid out in baroque style. [Courtesy: News Team International]

The grand view with a lawn would become the signature look of the landscape garden, but it was also part of the baroque style  at Versailles where the lawns swept down from the Palace. 

The English borrowed the very name of this art form of using plants, stone, and water to create an outdoor scene of natural beauty. Richardson writes, “The word ‘landskip’ was a term derived from the Dutch landscape or ‘land shape’, which was used exclusively to describe landscape paintings.”

It was both the Dutch and French influence in landscape design that the new English landscape garden of the early 1700s reflected.

 

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Capability Brown’s Abbey Landscape Receives Funding

Capability Brown’s Abbey landscape receives funding.

We just finished celebrating the three-hundredth anniversary of the birth of Lancelot Capability Brown (1716-1783).

I have enjoyed reading the posts about the celebration in England that included many events during the year and even a video.

You can find news about the year-long celebration of Brown’s anniversary on the website simply called CapabilityBrown.com.

Brown influenced the development of the landscape garden in the mid-eighteenth century.

Tim Richardson in his book The Arcadian Friends: Inventing the English Landscape Garden writes that a bit of formality in the garden initially marked the emerging new eighteenth century garden. He says, “An element of formality remained an important ingredient in even the most fashionable gardens until well into the 1730s.”

That lasted until the touch of Brown appeared on the scene.

Richardson says, “It was only in the second half of the century, and the advent of ‘Capability’ Brown, that the landscape of rolling pasture and naturalistic lakes became the norm.”

Brown emerged as the most signficant English landscape gardener at that time.

It was his lawn that became the mark of his work on any given landscape.

Milton Abbey, landscape designed by Capability Brown in the eighteenth century

The fourteenth century Milton Abbey near Blandford Forum in Dorset rests on a Capability Brown landscape apparently nicknamed “The Great Stare” by the great landscape architect himself. [above]

Recently the Heritage Lottery Fund awarded the Abbey over a million pound grant to repair the buildings, improve facilities for visitors, and enhance the connections between the Abbey and the five hundred acre landscape designed by Capability Brown.

Today the Abbey continues in the great Benedictine tradition of hospitality to all visitors. The grant will help the Abbey, its staff and volunteers to extend their welcome, and ensure that the Abbey and its  landscape are restored for the inspiration and enjoyment of generations to come.

The grant will support the rediscovery of historic walks, drives, and viewpoints in the landscape designed by Brown between 1763-83.

Brown’s historic landscape at Milton Abbey will continue as a living example of the English landscape garden of the mid-eighteenth century.

 

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Politics Influenced Modern English Garden

Politics influenced modern English garden.

One would think that politics is the farthest thing from any sort of garden style or fashion.

A garden is, after all, about the design of a piece of land with plants.

Tim Richardson in his book The Arcadian Friends: Inventing the English Landscape Garden makes the point that the English garden change called the ‘landscape garden’ in the early 1700s was linked to the political environment in England.

At that time the English garden developed a ‘modern’ style that changed the English garden forever. The style included a more natural look, less tied to the precise pruning of the Dutch contribution to landscape at that time.

The poet Alexander Pope, the nurseryman Thomas Switzer, and others sought to express a new form of landscape design.

The new English landscape had the opposition between the Tories and Whigs to thank for its emergence.

Richardson says, “[In the 1680s and 1690s]  those in favor of a Protestant succession to the throne – and the businesslike ordering of national affairs that came with it – realized that the treatment of the land itself, including gardens, could be assumed as a powerful emotional and economic argument in favor of Whig ideas of progress and patriotism.”

More creative, intellectual British aristocrats considered the earlier formal, symmetrical garden design of an ‘Anglo-Dutch’ manner that preceded the early 1700s, unsuitable to a modern nation.

This group of new landscapers, led by Pope, sought to express themselves in redesigning the garden.

Richardson writes, “Pope’s ideas were to shape the form of the landscape garden in decades to come.”

“The landscape garden did not arise out of a progression of Taste, as the Whigs would have us believe, but out of an explosion of intellectual creativity,” says Richardson.

If Richardson’s argument is accepted, and in the book he presents evidence to make that point, we have much to be grateful for in the struggle between the two political factions of England in the early 1700s.

The elements of surprise and variety also became the qualities that accompanied the new landscape garden.  The artist William Kent emerged as a major force in designing properties with the new landscape garden look.

George Washington and Thomas Jefferson both preferred this new landscape garden style on their properties in Virginia.

 

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Growing Vegetables Required Enclosed Garden

Growing vegetables required enclosed garden.

Recently I received a gift of a seed starting kit with several vegetable seed packets.

Unfortunately, I cannot grow vegetables in my garden because we have too much shade.

Today with influence from groups like the Farm-to-Table social movement, the interest in growing vegetables is becoming more extensive.

The kitchen garden, or vegetable garden as it became known, has a long history in the story of gardening, but often meant a walled garden area.

In her book Keywords in American Landscape Design Therese O’Malley writes about the meaning of the words “Kitchen garden.”  She says, “In garden periodicals and treatises of the 1840s, the kitchen garden saw a resurgence as an element of newly marketed plans for suburban domestic landscapes.”

Every Victorian home had to have a kitchen garden.

O’Malley continues “All citations emphasized the need to enclose a kitchen garden with a wall or fence.”

“[Several treatises] preferred a regular shape like a square or rectangle.”

George Washington loved the English garden tradition. At Mount Vernon he included a walled kitchen garden to enclose the area where vegetables would grow. [below]

Upper Garden at Mount Vernon [Courtesy photo]

Such an enclosure protects the plants from winds and of course from certain animals.

For decades here in America we had to plant vegetables behind the house, or in the back yard, and often with a fence around the area.  That tradition followed the English example of a walled kitchen garden.

 

 

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Landscape Garden Lost Appeal

Landscape garden lost appeal.

The English landscape garden, recognized by its informal, natural look of winding pathways and extensive areas of lawn, reached its peak in the mid-eighteenth century.

Shortly after that the style experienced a bit of decline.

The exotic plants arriving from the Americas and Asia caused a loss of interest.  Gardeners needed room to include these coveted plants, and so the extensive lawn areas became spotted with plants from outside the country.

David Stuart writes in his book The Garden Triumphant: A Victorian Legacy, “Those who owned them [the newly imported exotic plants], perhaps growing the rarest that could be found, felt that they were as status-full as having a summer-house shaped like the Colosseum, and hankered after a mode of gardening that would allow them to show their wonderful plants to the world.”

Just to grow the new plants was in itself a status symbol.

The cherished landscape garden that marked England’s greatest contribution to garden art was receding into the background to make room for new annuals and shrubs. American rhododendrons and Chinese camellias attracted more attention than the sweeping lawns of Capability Brown.

Stuart says, “Consequently, by the end of the eighteenth century, the landscape garden was clearly doomed.”

Roses too, illustrated here by landscape gardener Humphry Repton, appeared in their own garden called a rosary by 1800. [below]

Humphry Repton’s Rosarium (1813)

And so, as happens in all garden fashion and style, what was once in became no longer desirable.

The classic English natural style would always be important, even into the nineteenth century, but not with the vigor of the early and mid 1700s.

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Thomas Jefferson’s English Landscape

Thomas Jefferson’s English Landscape

Thomas Jefferson advocated for the modern, natural, picturesque landscape design at Monticello after his trip with John Adams to tour the estate gardens of England.

In his article “The Picturesque in the American Garden and Landscape Before 1800”  James D. Kornwulf says, “Little documentary, and even less visual, evidence survives to prove that American gardeners followed picturesque principles on a large scale before 1786 when Thomas Jefferson and John Adams made their well-known tour of English (and, for Jefferson, of French) picturesque gardens.”

Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello featured the modern style of the English garden called the picturesque.

As his guide for what gardens to visit Jefferson used the  book by English garden writer Thomas Whatley Observations on Modern Gardening.  Some consider the book the best description of picturesque modern gardening, written before landscape designer Humphry Repton (1752 –1818) became England’s most famous landscape gardener in the final third of the century.

Whatley included the garden at Chatsworth, north of London, which became Jefferson’s favorite landscape.  Capability Brown in the mid eighteenth century had redesigned Chatsworth to include extensive lawns.

In a 1917 article in the American magazine Landscape Architecture the architect Fiske Kimball (1888 – 1955) wrote: “Landscape gardening in America as an art, even though not as a profession, may claim as its father the father of American independence itself, a worthy forerunner of Downing, Olmsted, and Eliot.”

Jefferson created his landscape with the principles of the picturesque English style that he had experienced himself.

His friend, Philadelphia seedsman Bernard McMahon, author of the most important early book on gardening American Gardener (1806), also promoted the same style of English landscape gardening.

Jefferson’s picturesque style would continue to influence the American home landscape throughout the nineteenth century, especially in the books and articles coming from the pen of New York nurseryman turned landscape gardener Andrew Jackson Downing

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Oliver Plunkett’s Birthplace Includes Garden

Oliver Plunkett’s birthplace includes garden.

I just finished reading a biography of Oliver Plunkett, an Archbishop in Ireland who died in 1681 as a martyr for his Catholic faith.

Four priests and five laymen, paid to testify against him, betrayed him at his trial in London. They convinced the court that Plunkett planned to invade England with the help of the

Oliver Plunkett

French.

The witnesses also claimed that Plunkett wanted England under the control of the Pope.

Plunkett never received a chance to bring his own witnesses to the trial. The case has over the centuries been studied as an example of the poorest of judicial practice.

Plunkett’s life amounted to a witness for his faith, amidst the harshest of hatred and bigotry. It is the story of a courageous man who only tried to heal and bring people together in the name of faith.

While in Ireland recently, I visited the early home and church of Plunkett in Loughcrew in county Meath, one hour from Dublin.

There I found a beautiful garden, built in the nineteenth century.

The garden included a wall with a border of perennials, too many to count. [below]

 

Oliver Plunkett's border, along a wall in his birthplace

The perennial border along the red brick wall in Oliver Plunkett’s birthplace

This border represents the garden fashion in the late nineteenth century encouraged by Irish garden writer William Robinson (1838-1935).  He proposed perennials rather than the traditional annuals for flowerbeds.

What was amazing as I walked the property at Loughcrew that day was the thought that from this spot came a giant in Irish history, the man of faith known today as St. Oliver Plunkett.

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Victorian Garden Fashion Reappears

Victorian garden fashion reappears.

Gardening has always been a mix of fashion and style.

A recent article in The English Garden called “Gardening features: the bedding display”  demonstrates renewed interest in the bedding out fashion, popular in the nineteenth century.

The magazine traces the history of this Victorian garden practice.

The article says, “Seed merchants sold special bedding plant seeds, which could be sent direct to gardeners using the newly available postal and railway network. By the 1880s, this ‘bedding boom’ had reached even the small suburban garden, with loud displays in island beds proudly placed right in the middle of lawns. These beds came in a variety of forms, all of which – bar the circle – were equally ridiculous. Who in their right mind would choose a star, crescent, heart, butterfly or ‘tadpole’ as a shape for a bed?”

The answer for that period was that many gardeners did, because it was the garden fashion of the day.

The article includes this fabulous photo as well. [below]  The scene looks like something out of the nineteenth century garden catalogs.

Some gardens, such as Lyme Park in Cheshire, are reintroducing or reinterpreting old bedding schemes. Credit: NPTL/Stephen Robson

Some gardens, such as Lyme Park in Cheshire, are reintroducing or reinterpreting old bedding schemes. Credit: NPTL/Stephen Robson. [Courtesy of The English Garden magazine]

When the author raises the question about who would do it, all I could think of is how often this idea appeared in the nineteenth century American seed and nursery catalogs.

Peter Henderson, for example, the seed merchant from New York not only encouraged this practice but included an illustration of it on his catalog cover several times.

What is garden fashion at one time may seem strange at a later date.

That is what is happening here.

The idea of bedding out demands not only a lot of plants, but also a great amount of time in maintaining such a bed on the lawn.

I can see why people do not want to garden this way today.

When you see it, however, the first emotion is how beautiful it is, but then you think of the many hours it took to create this colorful design on the lawn.

At the high point of this garden fashion in the nineteenth century American landscape designer Frank J. Scott wrote his famous landscape handbook Suburban Home Grounds (1870).

He said, “To keep a great number of small beds filled through the summer with low blooming flowers and their edges well cut is expensive.

“If they are also planned so that the grass strips  between them must be cut with a sickle, few gentlemen of  moderate means will long have the patience to keep them with the nice care essential to their good effect.”

The cost of the plants and also the labor made him wonder if the practice was worth it.

Today the issues for bedding out still remain, thus making a gardener hesitate to cultivate such a bedding out scheme of planting.

That does not however stop gardeners from continuing this Victorian fashion.

The article from TEG magazine ends with these words, “It seems many private gardeners still believe in bedding, with bedding plants currently representing a third of UK consumers’ spending on garden plants.”

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Flower Beds Revolutionized English Garden

Flower beds revolutionized English garden.

We take flower beds for granted, but at one time they became revolutionary, making a statement against the current garden fashion.

The story began in early nineteenth century England when gardeners needed room for the unusual plants coming into the country from Asia, Africa, and America.

Plant collectors risked dangers and even death to provide the unusual and unknown flora from around the world.  English gardeners could not get enough of such plants.

The question became ‘Where do I plant them?’ for many gardeners.  After decades of stately lawns in front of and behind the house, there seemed little space to showcase these latest garden novelties.

stuart-plants-and-gardens-2David Stuart in his book The Plants that Shaped our Gardens writes, “When Lady Grenville, in exasperation [about where she would plant the new flowers coming into England from around the world], cut some large circles of the lawn in front of her drawing-room windows, and filled them with scarlet bergamots, blue salvias or yellow cosmos, she broke a century’s taboo, and started a colossal new movement.”

That was 1825. The garden has not been its old eighteenth century version since.

Here a simple act by Lady Grenville, or rather by her gardener, changed gardening.

Late eighteenth century landscape gardener Humpry Repton (1752-1818) had encouraged flowers in the landscape, even suggesting a rosarium for a rose collection. Flowers were not new. What was new was where they were planted in the landscape.

Flower beds on the lawn then became common practice both in England and America.

By 1880 Rochester, New York seedsman James Vick (1818-1882)  took flower beds for granted. The beds on the lawn, he advised, needed to include annuals that bloom for the entire season. 

He wrote, “A few flower beds may be made, and usually near the borders, or opposite windows, and they should be of simple, graceful forms, and look well the whole summer, and every day and all day.”

Lady Grenville’s example illustrates how sometimes what we take for granted in gardening has a history.

Why we garden in a particular way and with certain plants expresses the culture of a particular time and place.

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