Landscape Painting Inspired Eighteenth Century English Garden

Landscape painting inspired eighteenth century English garden.

The English garden took a new direction in the early 1700s.

The landscape became an expression of art, fashioned with materials like land form, plants, stone, and water. The aristocratic landowners, who fostered this new garden style, claimed it offered a more natural look, rather than one based on formality and symmetry.

Landscape painting became the inspiration for this new landscape garden.

The landscape painting most influential included mountains, trees, various images of sunlight, clouds, water, pathways, and sometimes classic structures like temples.

In the process the English garden, expressed in eighteenth century landscapes like Stowe, Rousham, and Stourhead, became a work of art.

In his book The Arcadian Friends: Inventing the English Landscape Garden Tim Richardson says           “[During the late 1730s and 1740s] the political charge of landscape design did not exactly diminish, but it was challenged by a fashionable new aesthetic sensibility with regard to outdoor scene-making that was largely derived from painting.

“The landscape garden was now beginning to be viewed as much as an artform as it was a vehicle for political self-expression.”

It was landscape painting that motivated this new English garden.

Edward Hyams writes in  The English Garden that Henry Hoare in his garden at Stourhead had carried out in nature’s own materials the landscape on canvas of Claude, Salvator Rosa and Zuccarelli.

Variety Marked Eighteenth Century English Garden

Variety marked eighteenth century English garden.

How well I remember my visit to the garden at  Stourhead, built in the mid 1700s.

We drove a couple of hours west of London, near Mere, Wiltshire to find Stourhead which today covers 2,650 acres.

What impressed me were the different kinds of art that I found in the garden as I walked around like the temple, the grotto, the lake, and the Palladian bridge.

Tim Richardson writes in his book The Arcadian Friends: Inventing the English Landscape Garden “Even more than concepts such as ‘naturalism’, ‘informality’, or ‘wildness’, or even the symbolic content of the design, it was variety which emerged as the most important structural element of the eighteenth-century landscape garden.”

From the moment the visitor’s guide instructed me to follow the path through the woods up the hill to the grand house, I was surprised at every turn in Stourhead.

I never knew what I would find as I walked the path around the lake. The path offered its own twists and turns.

There were so many beautiful parts to this landscape garden design.

No wonder Richardson refers to Stourhead as one of the greatest of all Arcadian landscapes.

Palladian bridge at Stourhead

Stourhead took decades to bring it to the look it has today. Gardeners moved the earth to form the hills, and engineers built the lake which now fills the role of the central feature in the landscape.

Edward Hyman writes in his book The English Garden, “Landscape gardening on a heroic scale, involving the moving of vast quantities of earth, the making of lakes and the planting of woods, distinguished the eighteenth century in England.”

You can only imagine the array of projects that the landscape at Stourhead demanded to acheive the look we see today.

Stourhead, a work of art, succeeds on its variety of design elements in the landscape.

Top Ten Cottage Garden Flowers Include Hollyhock

Top ten cottage garden flowers include hollyhock.

Recently the magazine The English Garden posted online an article entitled “Top Ten Flowers for a Cottage Garden.”

Since I am interested in cottage gardens, I had to have a look at the article.

Of  the group of flowers mentioned in the article I discovered that I grow about half of them in my garden.

The list of ten includes the hollyhock. [below]

Hollyhock [Courtesy of The English Garden article]

I am not surprised at that choice since it is a popular flower, showy, and easy to grow.

Easy for everybody that is but me.

I have tried to grow it many times, but without success. It could be that I have too much shade in my garden.

The hollyhock has a long history, and is not native to Europe or America. 

The Latin name for the plant is Alcea rosea, but sometimes the name Althaea rosea may appear.

Nineteenth century Rochester, New York seedsman James Vick (1818-1882) preferred Althaea.

Vick wrote in his magazine Vick’s Illustrated Monthly in 1878, “The true name of the Hollyhock is Althaea Rosea, and it is supposed to be a native of China, from which country it was introduced into Europe three hundred years ago [1578]. In regard to its origin, however, there seems to be some doubt, some authors claiming Syria as its native land, which an old work on Gardening, in our possession, published a hundred and fifty years since, calls it the Egyptian Hollyhock.”

Horticulturist Noel Kingsbury connects this flower to the cottage garden. In his new book Garden Flora: The Nature and Cultural History of the Plants in Your Garden he writes, “”These are short-lived non-clonal pioneer plants, as can be appreciated by the alacrity with which the cottage garden hollyhock grows in paving.”

He too recognizes the hollyhock’s ideal fit for a cottage garden.

He writes, “By the 18th century the hollyhock had become a cottage garden plant across Europe.”

 

 

English Landscape Garden Reflected Baroque Tradition

English landscape garden reflected baroque tradition.

In landscape history it is important to note the influence on a particular period’s garden design or style.

Nothing happens in a vacuum.

It is the Dutch that gave us the word ‘landscape’ but they also influenced the English landscape garden of the early 1700s.

Tim Richardson writes in his book The Arcadian Friends: Inventing the English Landscape Garden: “It could be argued that the landscape movement was not primarily a reaction at all, but grew organically out of the tradition of the baroque formal garden, particularly the ‘Dutch’ elements of it, and in so doing retained many of its features.”

The landscape garden borrowed features from the baroque garden, like the formal and symmetrical French design that one could see at Versailles with its grand formality, straight lines, elaborate parterres,  and symmetry.  The landscape of Louise XIV’s summer palace designed by Andre LeNotre illustrated a sense of  human domination over nature.  Nature is to be subservient to man, according to the philosophy of the baroque period. Religious sentiment too supported that view by interpreting the garden of Eden story with God’s command for human dominion over all of nature. 

Hampton Court in the late 1600s illustrated that baroque look as well. [below]

Notice the straight lines in the design but also the use of water.  All the plantings filling in each partere surrounding the fountain illustrate the formal look of the design.

Hampton Court Palace’s grand garden was laid out in baroque style. [Courtesy: News Team International]

The grand view with a lawn would become the signature look of the landscape garden, but it was also part of the baroque style  at Versailles where the lawns swept down from the Palace. 

The English borrowed the very name of this art form of using plants, stone, and water to create an outdoor scene of natural beauty. Richardson writes, “The word ‘landskip’ was a term derived from the Dutch landscape or ‘land shape’, which was used exclusively to describe landscape paintings.”

It was both the Dutch and French influence in landscape design that the new English landscape garden of the early 1700s reflected.

 

Eighteenth Century English Landscape Garden Included Flowers

Eighteenth century English landscape garden included flowers.

The modern landscape garden began its influence on the evolution of the English garden in the early eighteenth century.

Its distinctive features included views of a long extensive lawn, curved pathways, wooded areas, perhaps a deer park, classic buildings, and even a wild garden.

Flowers were also an important part of this design tradition.

Tim Richardson writes in his book  The Arcadian Friends: Inventing the English Landscape Garden, “As the landscape garden took shape, flowers continued to play an important role, either formally arrayed in those parterres retained from the old baroque style, or else included in the woodland and grove plantings in the new ‘wilder’ parts of the landscape.”

Flower gardens were not generally considered a part of the picturesque or naturalistic tradition, originating in the early eighteenth century. The sweeping lawn dominated the view.

Mark Laird

Mark Laird’s research also illustrates the importance of flowers in this early English garden.

In his book The Flowering of the Landscape Garden: English Pleasure Grounds 1720-1800  Laird makes the point that flowers were an integral part of that  eighteenth century picturesque tradition.

John Claudius Loudon (1783-1843), prolific garden writer and a successor to both William Kent and Capability Brown in his role as England’s premier landscape gardener, practiced a landscape design with a picturesque look that also included flowers.

Throughout his designs, beginning at Scone in Scotland, Loudon advocated for flowerbeds in the landscape.

In the mid-nineteenth century American nurseryman and landscape designer Andrew Jackson Downing proposed Loudon’s landscape design, including, of course, flowers as part of the landscape.

 

Modern Landscape Garden Included Ferme Ornee

Modern landscape garden included ferme ornee.

When the new English landscape garden appeared in the first half of the seventeenth century, it was marked by the elements of both nature and art.

The ‘ferme ornee’ or the ornamental farm appeared as part of that new, modern style.

Ferme ornee means  a farm designed for both utility and beauty, the buildings treated decoratively and contributing to the aesthetic effect within a picturesque landscape.

Horticulturist Stephen Switzer, in his book The Nobleman, Gentleman and Gardener’s Recreation (1715), first described the practice of the ferme ornee. He wrote, “By mixing the useful and profitable parts of Gard’ning with the Pleasurable in the Interior Parts of my Designs and Paddocks, obscure enclosures, etc. in the outward my Designs are thereby vastly enlarg’d and both Profit and Pleasure may be agreeably mix’d together”.

His English readers, steeped in the classics, would detect, in the juxtaposition of useful and pleasurable, the classic view of the twin aims of poetry, inherited from Horace, “to instruct and to delight.”

Tim Richardson writes in his book The Arcadian Friends: Inventing the English Landscape Garden, “Ferme ornee, or ornamental farm, was the first example of an important sub-genre of the landscape garden.”

In this country the ferme ornee also interested Thomas Jefferson as he considered how to landscape his hill property called Monticello.

Philip Southcote in the 1730s developed a ferme ornee as part of his English landscape at Woburn Farm. Thomas Whatley later wrote about it in his book Observations on modern gardening (1770).

Through Whatley’s book Jefferson learned about the ferme ornee, which he adopted at Monticello. [below]

In 1786 Jefferson, along with John Adams on their tour of English gardens, had visited Woburn Farm near Chetsey, formerly owned by Southcote. The landscape included the ferme ornee.

That particular ferme ornee impressed Jefferson.

Landscape architect Rudy Favretti wrote in his article “Thomas Jefferson’s ‘Ferme Ornee’ at Monticello”, “The experience greatly enriched his [Jefferson’s] ideas about creating a ferme ornee at Morticello.”

The modern English landscape garden of the early eighteenth century thus impacted farming as well as the pleasure garden both in England and America.

 

 

Capability Brown’s Abbey Landscape Receives Funding

Capability Brown’s Abbey landscape receives funding.

We just finished celebrating the three-hundredth anniversary of the birth of Lancelot Capability Brown (1716-1783).

I have enjoyed reading the posts about the celebration in England that included many events during the year and even a video.

You can find news about the year-long celebration of Brown’s anniversary on the website simply called CapabilityBrown.com.

Brown influenced the development of the landscape garden in the mid-eighteenth century.

Tim Richardson in his book The Arcadian Friends: Inventing the English Landscape Garden writes that a bit of formality in the garden initially marked the emerging new eighteenth century garden. He says, “An element of formality remained an important ingredient in even the most fashionable gardens until well into the 1730s.”

That lasted until the touch of Brown appeared on the scene.

Richardson says, “It was only in the second half of the century, and the advent of ‘Capability’ Brown, that the landscape of rolling pasture and naturalistic lakes became the norm.”

Brown emerged as the most signficant English landscape gardener at that time.

It was his lawn that became the mark of his work on any given landscape.

Milton Abbey, landscape designed by Capability Brown in the eighteenth century

The fourteenth century Milton Abbey near Blandford Forum in Dorset rests on a Capability Brown landscape apparently nicknamed “The Great Stare” by the great landscape architect himself. [above]

Recently the Heritage Lottery Fund awarded the Abbey over a million pound grant to repair the buildings, improve facilities for visitors, and enhance the connections between the Abbey and the five hundred acre landscape designed by Capability Brown.

Today the Abbey continues in the great Benedictine tradition of hospitality to all visitors. The grant will help the Abbey, its staff and volunteers to extend their welcome, and ensure that the Abbey and its  landscape are restored for the inspiration and enjoyment of generations to come.

The grant will support the rediscovery of historic walks, drives, and viewpoints in the landscape designed by Brown between 1763-83.

Brown’s historic landscape at Milton Abbey will continue as a living example of the English landscape garden of the mid-eighteenth century.

 

Empress Josephine’s English Garden

Empress Josephine’s English Garden

The landscape garden of the early 1700s took the English garden in a new direction.

The garden assumed a less formal look, replacing it with a more natural scene, especially with the extensive lawn and curved walkways.

The reach of the new or modern English garden traveled beyond the shores of Great Britain.

Even the French enjoyed it.

France, which had given the world the grand formal look of Le Notre’s Versailles, adopted this view of the English landscape garden at Chateau Malmaison, the country estate of Empress Josephine (1763-1814).

In his book Jardin de la Malmaison H. Walter Lack writes, “[The previous owner] laid out the garden of great beauty in the English style, with a remarkable number of very rare and exotic trees and plants.”

This painting by the artist A. Garnerey captures the open grassed area at Malmaison. [below]

The open lawn at Malmaison, country estate of Empress Josephine. [Painting by  A. Garnerey]

Empress Josephine’s architect Louis-Martin Berthault (1770-1823) “created a large, slightly undulating lawn and had it planted with groups of trees; vistas were also created.”

The Malmaison Temple in the garden. [Painting by A. Garnerey]

Berthault built a little temple with six columns. [above] To include such a temple also reflected the new English garden style as seen in gardens of the 1700s like that of Stowe and Stourhead.

Josephine built her extensive botanic garden at Malmaison, introducing many exotic plants including the dahlia from Mexico.

The new trees, shrubs, perennials, and annuals found a home in the perfect setting of this English garden on French soil.

National Garden Bureau Honors Pansy

National Garden Bureau honors pansy.

Who doesn’t like the pansy?

The National Garden Bureau  loves it so much that it just declared 2017 the Year of the Pansy.

This tiny plant has a long history in our gardens. It became popular in the Victorian era of the nineteenth century.

Until then most people considered it a weed.

Today pansies are a hybrid plant cultivated from wildflowers in Europe and western Asia. Much of the collection and cultivation of pansies can be attributed to horticulturists in the UK and Europe more than two hundred years ago.

Nineteenth century Rochester, New York seedsman James Vick (1818-1882) often wrote about the pansy, and also received letters about this flower from his customers.

He wrote, “The Pansy is a popular flower with both florists and amateurs, giving abundance of bloom until after severe frosts, enduring our hard winters with safety, and greeting us in the earliest spring with a profusion of bright blossoms.”

It was the smiley face on this plant that Vick and his customers loved.

Pansy ‘Delta Premium Marina’ [Thanks to the National Garden Bureau]

Garden pansies (Viola x wittrockiana) are a mixture of several species, including Viola tricolor. Oftentimes the names “pansy”, “viola”, and “violet” are interchangeable.

The American Violet Society classifies modern pansies as having large-flowered blooms with two slightly overlapping upper petals, two side petals, and a single bottom petal, with a slight beard in its center.

Pansies are considered annual bedding plants, used for garden decoration during cooler planting seasons.

According to the NGB, “Pansies come in a rainbow of colors: from crisp white to almost black, and most all colors in between. They are also a great addition to your spring or fall vegetable garden as they are edible and pair well with lettuces. They can also be candied and used to decorate sweets or other dishes.”

Vick wrote in 1874, “The Pansies make such a beautiful bed, and are so interesting as flowers that we are anxious all should succeed with them.”

Then he wrote about the flower’s likeness to a human face. He said, “No flower is so companionable and life-like. It requires no very great stretch of the imagination to cause one to believe that they see and move, and acknowledge your admiration in a very pretty knowing way.”

Did he mean that these plants know you love them?

 

 

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Victorian Gardeners Treasured Castor Oil Plant

Victorian gardeners treasured castor oil plant.

The ricinus, or castor oil plant, can offer both a showy color and tall structure for the garden.

It was a popular Victorian plant for both the outdoor vase and garden beds.

Tom Carter writes in his book The Victorian Garden “[William] Robinson lists as indispensable to the subtropical enthusiast ricinus (castor-oil plant), canna, polymnia, colocasia, uhdea, wigandia, ferdinanda, yucca, draceana, and palms.”

In his catalogs and garden magazine Rochester, New York seedsman James Vick (1818-1882) often recommended ricinus.

Vick wrote in his magazine in 1878, “This class of plants [sub-tropical] is becoming very popular,

Tall ricinus fills the center of this flowerbed. [Vick’s Illustrated Monthly, 1878]

and are used in what is known as sub-tropical gardening, that is, gardens furnished with plants of a tropical, or sub-tropical, origin, such as Century Plant, Agaves, Cannas, Caladiums, Ricinus, Yucca, Wigandia, Tritoma, Pampas Grass, etc.”

Vick kept up with the latest fashion and trends in gardening for his customers. He wanted them to know and appreciate flowers from various parts of the world like the exotic sub-tropicals.

One customer wrote to Vick in 1868 about her ricinus seeds. She said, “Many thanks for the fine Ricinus seed I got from you last Spring. I have two of the finest specimens of the giant species, ‘Giganteus’, one sixteen feet four inches high, and one thirteen feet.”

Ricinus fit the Victorian flair for bold and beautiful in the garden. It can grow several feet high with leaves that can measure three feet or more.

You can still find ricinus at garden centers in the spring and early summer.

Who knows? Maybe this old-fashioned Victorian annual might fit the bill for that center spot in a container or that flower bed where you need just that look.

 

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