Victorian Gardens Featured Carpet Bedding

Victorian gardens featured carpet bedding.

Untill 1890 the English garden included a garden fashion called ‘carpet bedding.’

In this style a particular plant provided a color for a design, which might be a diamond or a circle, while a contrasting color came from another plant.

In this Peter Henderson Seed Company catalog cover from 1886 red and white plants provided color for the diamond and the half-moon on the lawn. [below]

Bedding on the front cover of this Peter Henderson Company seed catalog

Bedding out on the front cover of this Peter Henderson Company seed catalog of 1886.

This form of gardening was also referred to as ‘bedding out,’ repeating the same plant in a design to achieve a certain mass color.

Tom Carter wrote about this garden fashion in his book The Victorian Garden. He said, “Without the bedding system, the new style of flower-gardening would not have been possible. Bedding-out, in turn, was a response to the introduction of many plants, many half-hardy annuals in the 1820s and 1830s.”

In the mid-nineteenth century English gardeners welcomed annuals from where ever plant hunters traveled including Asia, Africa, and South America.

Carter wrote, “The bedding-out system was an indispensable part of the high Victorian style of gardening which became first established in the 1850s.”

For example, it was the color of the coleus leaf, or the lobelia flower, or that special tint from the alternanthera that gardeners loved, including that plant in a design on the lawn.

David Stuart wrote an amazing book called The Garden Triumphant: A Victorian Legacy.  He said, “”In the early Victorian bedding or grouping system, plant individualities were of no importance, each individual merely yielding the colour of its flowers to the general show…The obsession with ‘show’ with plants merely as a ‘blaze of colours’ was all.”

Below is a modern version of carpet bedding or bedding out that comes from Italy. [below]

Photo: denvilles duo

Gardens in display [Thanks to Denvilles Duo]

So when you garden using a grouping of one plant, remember that the Victorians promoted that form of gardening.

Before that time it was considered a violation of garden etiquette to place one plant next to another of the same color and variety.

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Gardener Poet Celia Thaxter Loved Calendulas

Gardener poet Celia Thaxter loved calendulas.

This summer I planted several calendulas in my garden.

Recently while reading The Sandpiper, a biography of poet Celia Thaxter (1835-1894), written by her granddaughter Rosamond Thaxter, I discovered the calendula was Celia’s favorite flower.Sandpiper cover

I can understand why. It is a fabulous annual here in the northeast.

From the herbal site called Sunkist Herbal, we read its role in Victorian society. SH says, “The calendula (Calendula officinalis) is a hardy annual with single or double daisy-like blooms of yellow or orange. The 3- to 4-inch flowers open with the sun and close at night, leading the Victorians to believe they could set a clock by the flower. The name ‘calendula’ is from the same Latin word as ‘calendar,’ presumably because the flower was in bloom almost every month of the year.”

Rochester, New York seedsman James Vick (1816-1882) wrote in the October 1880 issue of his magazine Vick’s Illustrated Monthly, “Every one knows the old yellow Marigold, for it is common as the Sunflower, and has been as long as we can remember. It is called in the books Calendula, but that makes no difference, for it is the same old Marigold that many of us have grown for half a century. That name was given because it was thought some species were in flower every month of the calendar.”

He concluded, “The Calendula will probably never take rank with the best annuals, but we are glad to see it make a bold start for the front after so long a stay in the rear. If its improvement should continue, there is no telling the future of this good old flower.”

Calendula, Mother Earth Living

Calendula, Mother Earth Living

Vick seemed to imply that the calendula was making somewhat of a comeback.

Maybe so.

At the same time off the shores of Maine in her garden at Appledore Island, Celia Thaxter too was planting it in her garden.

Celia’s family owned a hotel on the island and for many summers Celia worked there and also tended her own flower garden.

In her garden Celia grew annuals to decorate the hotel as well as her own house where she often entertained artists, writers, and musicians.

The hotel went down in a fire in 1914, but volunteers have preserved Celia’s garden which measured 50 feet by 15 feet.

Today in her restored garden you still see the flowers laid out in the same order that Celia chose. She left the details of her garden in her book An Island Garden, probably her most famous book and still worth reading today.

Celia Thaxter's island garden measures 50 feet by 15 feet.

Celia Thaxter’s island garden measures 50 feet by 15 feet.

Celia collected her seeds from friends who came to the hotel, but also from seed companies. Perhaps one of her seed sources was the Vick Seed Company because she mentioned Vick’s death in a letter to a friend. Within weeks after his death in 1882 she wrote, “Old Vick died.”

Today the total number of flowers planted in Celia’s garden is 1600, including of course her  favorite calendula.

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Cordyline Offers Victorian Garden Look

Cordyline offers Victorian garden look.

The tropical plant called cordyline, introduced into Europe in the early 1800s, became important during the nineteenth century Victorian period.

English garden writer David Stuart writes in his book The Garden Triumphant: The Victorian Legacy that during Victorian times the cordyline became the ‘dot’ plant which was surrounded by many other flowering plants, whether in a container or in a flower bed.

Today a gardener can choose from among several varieties of the cordyline for a bit of the Victorian look.

You may already be familiar with the cordyline australis called ‘Red Star,’ which usually comes in a quart container. You grow it for its burgundy leaves.  It can easily fill in the back or the center of a planter. Then simply add flowering plants around it. This cordyline makes an outstanding addition to a summer container. It will grow to about 18” tall during the warm season.

There is now also a much larger cordyline becoming popular here in the northeast. It is called cordyline fruticosa, or under its popular name ‘Hawaiian Ti.’ You can find it at both box stores and some nurseries in a gallon and a half container. You may have to look in the indoor plant section of the store. This cordyline is much taller and wider than ‘Red Star.’ In the pot it stands almost two feet high and more than a foot wide. It can fill a large container easily by itself.

In warmer areas of the country like Florida cordyline fruticosa grows outdoors all year. The plant originates in tropical Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands.

What is amazing about this cordyline is its long showy, stiff red and burgundy foliage with a hint of green at times. It is the perfect plant choice to add that big lush tropical color to any outdoor summer environment. Easy to care for, it is tolerant of both over and under watering.

You can see it in this planter at the front door of a home in Milton, Mass. whose garden I recently visited on a Sunday afternoon tour. [below]

Cordyline Milton

Red leafed cordyline fruticosa fills the center of this front door container

Other cordylines that you might like are the cordyline called ‘Chocolate Queen’ which Logee’s Greenhouses in Connecticut features. The leaves emerge a variegated green and are heavily striped with cream and white.  As they mature, the leaves take on a tone of chocolate, red, and purple.

This summer in our front door container we planted the cordyline called ‘Torbay Dazzler’. Its long thin foliage shines in colors of green and creamy yellow.

Though the cordyline is a tropical plant, once popular in the Victorian garden, it certainly can still add both color and structure to the summer garden in areas with a warm summer.

 

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New Short Video Shows Pollinators

New short video shows pollinators.

Pollinators remain an important contributor in any garden. According to the New England Wild Flower Society, eighty percent of flowering plants depend on pollination. Yet organic farmer Jane Sorenson from River Barry Farm in Fairfax, Vermont says, “There are fewer bugs today than only a few years ago.”

That is all the more reason today to plant a pollinator-friendly garden. Pollinators include more than butterflies and birds, according to entomologist and author Eric Grissell.

Pollinators also include ants, wasps, and, of course, bees. Grissell writes in his book Bees, Wasps, and Ants, “It seems as if the usual state of human affairs is at work: an attraction for the bright, shiny aspects of nature in preference to the bugs that do the basic work of keeping our gardens functioning as nature meant them to.”

In April 1879 Rochester, New York seedsman James Vick wrote in his garden magazine Vick’s Illustrated Monthly , “Most of our garden flowers are honey-producing, as well as many of our wild plants and weeds. The main question is, what can we plant to produce the most food for bees, at the least expense.” He made a point then, which remains relevant today as well.

Plant for bloom of some sort during the whole gardening season. Use plants that provide nectar and pollen sources like annuals, perennials, shrubs, both native and exotic.

Situate the garden in a sunny area with windbreaks.

Provide where possible a water source like a birdbath. Pollinators do not live by nectar alone. They need water and shelter as well as food, and food requirements differ depending on the life stage of the pollinator.

Finally, pesticides can create problems in a pollinator-garden. Eliminate or minimize the impact of any pesticide in the garden.

Providing for pollinators doesn’t have to be complicated. Most of the plants you could use are available at a local nursery and easy to maintain.

After you plant your pollinator-friendly garden, register it online with the Million Pollinator Garden Challenge, a nationwide call to action.

Diane Blazek, Executive Director of the National Garden Bureau and one of the founders of the Challenge, says, “Once you plant it. Share it. A garden can be an acre, or a container, as long it includes a pollinator-friendly plant.”

Here is the new short video called “The Beauty of Pollination.” Enjoy.

 

 

Plant Old Fashioned Annual Called Calendula

Plant old fashioned annual called Calendula.

From the large family of flowers called the Compositae comes the yellow or orange flower known as Calendula.

Rochester, NY seedsman James Vick (1818-1882)  in his seed catalog of 1880 wrote this about the Calendula, “The Calendula is the fine old and well known Marigold family, which every one knows, but may not recognize by this name.”

Vick made reference also to the flower’s other name, “The old Pot Marigold, much favored for boiled mutton, is C. officinalis.”

From the herbal site called Sunkist Herbal, we read its role in Victorian society: “”The calendula (Calendula officinalis) is a hardy annual with single or double daisy-like blooms of yellow or orange. The 3- to 4-inch flowers open with the sun and close at night, leading the Victorians to believe they could set a clock by the

Calendula [courtesy Burpee Seeds]

Calendula [courtesy Burpee Seeds]

flower. The name ‘calendula’ is from the same Latin word as ‘calendar,’ presumably because the flower was in bloom almost every month of the year.”

The Calendula has a long history in American gardens, appearing in the book Gardens of Colonial Williamsburg. “Typically, the beds are filled with pot marigolds (Calendula officinalis).”

The Encyclopedia of Gardening, first published in 1936, says that the Calendula “is one of the most popular tender annuals.”

In 1880 Vick wrote in the October issue of his magazine Vick’s Illustrated Monthly, “Every one knows the old yellow Marigold, for it is common as the Sunflower, and has been as long as we can remember. It is called in the books Calendula, but that makes no difference, for it is the same old Marigold that many of us have grown for half a century. That name was given because it was thought some species were in flower every month of the calendar.”

He concluded, “The Calendula will probably never take rank with the best annuals, but we are glad to see it make a bold start for the front after so long a stay in the rear. If its improvement should continue, there is no telling the future of this good old flower.”

Vick seemed to imply there that in 1880 the Calendula was making somewhat of a comeback.

Recently I purchased Calendula seeds. Plan to use this colorful plant in the garden this summer.

Vick would be happy.

Perennials Changed Victorian Gardening

Perennials changed Victorian gardening.

Perennials play an important role in our gardens today. It’s as if we could not garden without them

In the history of the American garden that was not always the case.

As in Victorian England, in the mid nineteenth century annuals became the important plant, especially the bright and colorful varieties imported into the country from Asia, Africa, and South America. Such plants added constant color to the summer garden.

Rochester, New York seedsman James Vick (1818-1882) advocated for the use of perennials in the garden.  He wrote in his magazine Vick’s Illustrated Monthly in 1880, “The wealth of beauty presented by the hardy perennials is inexhaustible, and we can only pity those who are content to confine their attention to a few beds of tender plants, however bright and gay they may be while in their best conditions.”

Look at this glorious garden in the landscape of an eighteenth century mansion in Scotland called Carolside. [below] Perennials abound in this garden.

 

Carolside Garden

The Carolside garden in Scotland

Perennials and annuals can be used together, especially because the flowers of most perennials usually last for only a short length of time.  Annuals, on the other hand, give us their best the whole growing season.

The English recognized a change in gardening that included perennials. In the July 1880 issue of his magazine Vick quoted the English publication called The Gardener, “The flower garden of the present time seems to be undergoing a slow transition. There is a blending of tender with hardy plants which is most desirable; tender and hardy plants appear only to have rival claims until they are placed side by side, when it is found that the attractions of either are about evenly balanced.”

By the end of the nineteenth century when English landscape designer Gertrude Jekyll laid out a garden, she insisted on an array of perennials to give color and structure to the garden.

To this day perennials provide much of the beauty in the garden.

 

 

Victorian Flower Beds Bloom in St. Louis

Victorian flower beds bloom in St. Louis.

A British immigrant, Henry Shaw (1800-1889) built his St. Louis, Missouri landscape in the gardenesque style.  In 1832 the English writer and horticulturist John Claudius Loudon first proposed the gardenesque style as a blend of the picturesque with room in the garden to show off one’s plant collection.

Shaw bequeathed his property to the city fathers who named it the Missouri Botanical Garden.

In this photo [below]  you can still see Shaw’s house but today also intricate beds of flowering plants that now decorate the area. This landscape presents a high Victorian style.

Hnery Sahw's house with Victirain flower beds on the lawn

Shaw’s house with Victorian style carpet beds [courtesy of the Missouri Botanical Garden]

Philadelphia nurseryman and editor of Gardener’s Monthly Thomas Meehan wrote in 1868: “Mr. Henry Shaw is one of those liberal public spirited men who do so much honor to the United States. Some take pride in endowing and establishing one kind of institution, some others. Mr. Shaw’s taste leads him to botany, arboriculture, and gardening. His Botanic Garden and residence at Tower Hill is unequalled to anything of the kind in the United States, and indeed by few others in the world.”

Meehan noted in that same article that Shaw was building the Linnean House  where he would one day showcase  his camellias. “The hot-house department is quite extensive, and the various collections are gradually being filled up. A new palm or tropical house on a magnificent scale was being constructed.”

When I visited the Missouri Botanical Garden, I saw the  Linnean House, highlighted by dozens of tulips beside it on that Spring day. [below]

Shaw's Linnean House at the Mousouri Botanical Garden

Springtime at Shaw’s Linnean House at the Missouri Botanical Garden

Shaw, like other 19th century American gardeners, preferred the English landscape style called gardenesque.

By mid-nineteenth century landscape design in both England and America included intricate flowerbeds called carpet beds as you can see today at the Missouri Botanical Garden.

 

Differing Views of Nineteenth Century Garden

Differing Views of  Nineteenth Century Garden

The way to plant a flower garden changed during the nineteenth century.

Two American seedsmen wrote differently about how to install a flower garden.

Boston seedsman Joseph Breck (1794-1873) wrote The Flower Garden in 1851.

In the book he recommended the placement of the garden as a border before a window with southern or southeastern exposure.

He carefully laid out for the reader the design of the flowerbed.

Breck wrote, “This outward border will be the most appropriate place for flowering shrubs, and tall herbaceous biennial and perennial plants”.

When he discussed what flowers to plant, Breck listed several annuals, plus Dahlias and Gladiolus and Roses, with a few choice perennials. He recommended native plants like Lobelia Cardinalis, Aquilegia Canadensis, Aster Novae Anglae and Solidago.

Breck wanted a flower garden in bloom during each season. Choosing the right plant would have provided that color. His borders were to be filled with annuals, perennials, and native plants.

Carpet bedding croppedNew York seedsman Peter Henderson (1822-1890) wrote his book Gardening for Pleasure in 1875. In it he also discussed laying out the flower garden.

He admitted at the start that old-fashioned mixed borders with hardy herbaceous plants were “now but little seen”. He wrote, “The mixed system still has its advocates, who deprecate the modern plan of massing in color as being too formal, and too unnatural a way to dispose of flowers.”

The fashion he discussed called ‘massing of color’ referred to the use of many annuals of the same variety to create a display of one color. The plants were to be placed in a pattern or ribbon line like in the Sunset Seed and Plant Company catalog of 1897. [above]

The words “They Grow” in the catalog cover here might have been planted with Alyssum, which of course needed to be trimmed regularly.  Mass beds needed many plants of the same variety but also much maintenance to keep them short.

Henderson wrote, “A single misplaced color may spoil the effect of the whole.”

Thus these two nineteenth century seedsmen offered two different forms of the flowergarden.

In 1851 Breck advocated for a border of annuals, perennials, and native plants. In 1875 Henderson promoted the modern carpet bed, a design of mass planting with annuals.

I am ending with this  photo of the beautiful perennial borders from the Scottish garden Carolside in Earlson. [below] Just received this on Twitter from Great British Gardens.

Carolside Garden, Earlson, Scotland

Carolside Garden, Earlson, Scotland [Thanks to @BritishGardens]

 

 

Victorians Thought Weeds a Result of Adam’s Fall

Victorians Thought Weeds a Result of Adam’s Fall

You know weeds are a problem for every gardener.

The nineteenth century Victorians who considered cultivating flowers a reflection of the Garden of Eden in the Book of Genesis had their own view of weeds.

Nicolette Scourse writes in her book The Victorians and their Flowers, “The presence of weeds and other difficulties of cultivation were directly attributable to Man’s disobedience rather than any natural cause favoring weed dispersal.”

That view seems in line with the way Victorians thought about flowers. They were signs of God’s presence among us.  Rochester, New York seedsman James Vick (1818-1882) wrote, “Flowers are the symbols of all that are pure and true in this life, and they teach us to hope for Life to come.”

To cultivate a flower garden therefore meant a closeness to God.

This Schegel catalog cover of 1895

This Schegel catalog cover of 1895

Vick once received a letter from one of his customers. The letter said, “Mr. Vick, you say ‘The culture of flowers teaches industry, patience, and faith and hope.’ I think you may add courage and persistency…I do feel ‘better prepared for the duties and responsibilities of life – more fitted to conquer its evils and enjoy its pleasures.”

All of that from growing a few flowers.

That is precisely the point here.

In nineteenth century Victorian times you were not just growing flowers, you were showing a sense of morality and religious sentiment.

The Boston horticulturist Marshall Wilder (1798-1886) once wrote to Vick the following, “Flowers are the very embodiment of beauty; flowers are like angel spirits, ministering to the finest sensibilities of our nature, often inspiring us with thoughts, which like the unexpressed prayer, lie too deep for utterance.”

So it was no surprise that weeds would be considered a result of rejecting God’s love.

The Victorians sought to frame gardening in such a religious context, even calling the rose ‘the curse of Adam’ since, according to Scourse, they were ‘the thornbearers.’

The nineteenth century too inherited the sentiment of an earlier Romantic period in which nature reflected the Divine within its soil, water, stone, and plant.

The idea of using religious langauge to motivate the gardener reminded me of the words of Pope Francis in his recent Encyclical on Climate Change and Inequality. He writes, “The ethical principles capable of being apprehended by reason can always appear in different guise and find expression in a variety of languages, including religious langauge.”

 

 

 

Orchids Grow on Trees

Orchids grow on trees.

In the mid 1700s orchids arrived from tropical areas around the world to find a new home in England and France. Thus began the European gardener’s fascination with cultivating this exotic flower. It would not be long before the orchid also arrived in America.

A few days ago I attended the Tropical Plant Industry Exhibition in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, a trade show for the green industry. The show included over 400 growers, many from southern Florida, with about 16,000 attendees who were mainly garden center owners in search of plants.

Chris Beyter, from Ball Horticultural in Illinois, said, “Tropicals are popular today, especially orchids and succulents.”

It was thus no surprise that I saw many orchid varieties, including Jay Marrero’s, from Florida orchid grower Silver Vase. He told me, ”We are creating a demand for orchids.”

If cared for correctly, the orchid flowers will bloom for three to five months.

The day before the Show a garden tour bus took us to a Miami garden where I saw an orchid growing on a tree in the front yard of a home. [below] I couldn’t believe it. It was a beautiful sight.

 

In this Florida front yard you can see orchids on this tree

In this Florida front yard an orchid grows on this tree.

Orchids do not grow in soil but prefer a growing medium like Leca, a clay material in the shape of small brown colored balls that look almost like marbles.

Unfortunately, many people over water an orchid, the major problem in growing the plant.

In the wild you find the orchid growing between rocks and on tree trunks – vertically.

Victoria Zemlan in her article “By Hook by Crook: The Plunder of Orchids for the New World” says “Now, we can buy inexpensive orchids in almost any nursery, home improvement center, or grocery store, but 19th century orchids were an extravagance reserved for the nobility.”

This flower provided many hours of pleasure to gardeners in nineteenth century America who could afford both the greenhouse and a garden staff to tend to them.

But now any gardener can grow them. Zemlan says, “Orchids haven’t lost their allure — Americans now spend more on orchids each year than on any other houseplant.”