Formal Garden Design Dominated Early America.
The design of the English garden during the 1600s followed a formal design which was a combination of French and Dutch elements of symmetry.
Then in the early 1700s the English took landscape to a new height in creating landscape as an art form, which they called the ‘natural’ or ‘picturesque’ landscape design.
In his article “The Picturesque in the American Garden and Landscape Before 1800” James D.Kornwulf defines the picturesque “as the aesthetic underlying ‘le jardin anglais’ as the natural, irregular, and deliberately asymmetrical kind of planting.”
Colonial America however in the 1700s continued the formal garden design in properties along the East coast.
Though there were a couple of isolated examples of the picturesque landscape, the formal garden design dominated in eighteenth century America.
The landscape at both Middleton Place and Drayton Hall in Charleston, South Carolina, probably dating from around 1740, represent the earliest known picturesque gardens in America, according to Kornwulf.
Richard Bushman argued in his book The Refinement of America that “In the eighteenth century informal and picturesque gardens remained subservient to the dominant influence of formal garden principles.”
The formal garden made its first monumental appearance in Colonial America at the College of William and Mary in 1694.
Examples from the eighteenth century of formal garden design include the William Paca landscape in Annapolis, Maryland and the Governor’s Mansion at Williamsburg, Virginia [above].
Kornwulf says, “Without doubt, these gardens were the model for many created in eighteenth-century Virginia.”
Looking to the English for garden inspiration, eighteenth century America followed the older tradition of the more formal English garden.